### Individual Core Clock Frequencies

The enhanced 14nm process which allows Intel to extract an additional power efficiency, allowing them to clock those processors higher. For the Cascade Lake models offered at Kogence:

**Non-AVX Instructions**: Guaranteed base frequency is **3.0GHz**. Turbo boost frequency when all cores are active is **3.6GHz**. Turbo boost frequency when only one core is active is **3.9GHz**.

**AVX-2.0 Instructions**: Guaranteed base frequency is **2.4GHz**. Turbo boost frequency when all cores are active is **3.3GHz**. Turbo boost frequency when only one core is active is **3.6GHz**.

**AVX-512 Instructions**: Guaranteed base frequency is **2.1GHz**. Turbo boost frequency when all cores are active is **2.7GHz**. Turbo boost frequency when only one core is active is **3.5GHz**.

See Intel CPU Clock Frequencies for more details.

### Individual Core FLOPs Performance

**Non-AVX Instructions**: **Kogence Cascade Lake nodes can provide 12 to 15.6 DP GFLOPs per second per core for non-AVX instructions**. One can do 4 DP FLOPs per clock cycle. The guaranteed minimum base frequency for non-AVX instructions is 3.0GHz. This means we can get a minimum of 12 DP GFLOPs per second per core for non-AVX instructions. With turbo boost, one can get between 14.4 to 15.6 GFLOPs per second per core depending upon how many cores are active.

**AVX-2.0 Instructions**: **Kogence Cascade Lake nodes can provide 38.4 to 57.6 DP GFLOPs per second per core for AVX-2.0 instructions**. AVX-2.0 units can do 256 bit arithmetic. For double precision (DP, 32bits) floating point operations (FLOPs), this means that each unit can do 256/32 = 8 such operations in one clock cycle. On Kogence Cascade nodes, each core has two AVX-2.0 units (see below for details), so they are capable of 16 DP FLOPs per clock cycle. As mentioned above the minimum guaranteed base frequency for AVX-2.0 instruction is 2.4GHz. This means a minimum of 16 DP FLOPs can be performed in 0.416ns (i.e. 1/2.4GHz). That means Kogence Cascade Lake nodes can do 38.4 DP GFLOPs per second **per core** at minimum guaranteed clock frequency for AVX-2.0 instructions. With turbo boost frequencies, Kogence Cascade Lake nodes can do 52.8 GFLOPs per second **per core** when all cores are active, and 57.6 GFLOPs per second **per core** when only one core is active.

**AVX-512 Instructions**: **Kogence Cascade Lake nodes can provide 67 to 112 DP GFLOPs per second per core for AVX-512 instructions**. On Kogence Cascade nodes, each core has 2 AVX-512 fused multiply addition (FMA) units (see below for details). There FMA units have 512 bits registers. So they are capable of 32 Double Precision (DP, 32bits) Floating Point Operations (FLOPs) per clock cycle for AVX-512 instructions (512/32 * 2 = 32). As mentioned above the minimum guaranteed base frequency for AVX-512 instruction is 2.1GHz. This means a minimum of 32 DP FLOPs can be performed in 0.476ns (i.e. 1/2.1GHz) **per core**. That means Kogence Cascade Lake nodes can do 67.2 DP GFLOPs per second **per core** at minimum guaranteed clock frequency. With turbo boost frequencies, Kogence Cascade Lake nodes can do 86.4 DP GFLOPs per second **per core** when all cores are active, and 112 GFLOPs per second **per core** when only one core is active.